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2015研究生入学统一考试试题及解析(英语一)

 2015研究生入学统一考试试题(英语一)
  Section 1 Use of English
  Directions:Readthe following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank andmark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  Though not biologically related, friends are as "related" as fourth cousins, sharing about 1% of genes. That is   1   a study published from the University of California and Yale University in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has   2  .
  The study is a genome-wide analysis conducted   3   1932 unique subjects which   4   pairs of unrelated friends and unrelated strangers. The same people were used in both   5  .
  While 1% may seem    6   , it is not so to a geneticist. As co-author of the study James Fowler, professor of medical genetics at UC San Diego says, "Most people do not even   7   their fourth cousins but somehow manage to select as friends the people who    8    our kin."
  The team also developed a "friendship score" which can predict who will be your friend based on their genes.
  The study   9    found that the genes for smell were something shared in friends but not genes for immunity. Why this similarity in olfactory genes is difficult to explain, for now.    10  , as the team suggests, it draws us to similar environments but there is more   11   it. There could be many mechanisms working in tandem that   12    us in choosing genetically similar friends   13   than "functional kinship" of being friends with   14  !
  One of the remarkable findings of the study was that the similar genes seem to be evolving 15    than other genes. Studying this could help    16    why human evolution picked pace in the last 30,000 years, with social environment being a major    17   factor.
  The findings do not simply corroborate people's    18    to befriend those of similar  19    backgrounds, say the researchers. Though all the subjects were drawn from a population of European extraction, care was taken to   20   that all subjects, friends and strangers were taken from the same population. The team also controlled the data to check ancestry of subjects.
  1    A what    B why    C how    D when
  2    A defended    B concluded    C withdrawn    D advised
  3    A for    B with    C by    D on
  4    A separated    B sought    C compared    D connected
  5    A tests    B objects    C samples    D examples
  6    A insignificant    B unexpected    C unreliable    D incredible
  7    A visit    B miss    C know    D seek
  8    A surpass    B influence    C favor    D resemble
  9    A again    B also    C instead    D thus
  10    A Meanwhile    B Furthermore    C Likewise    D Perhaps
  11    A about    B to    C from    D like
  12    A limit    B observe    C confuse    D drive
  13    A according to    B rather than    C regardless of    D along with
  14    A chances    B responses    C benefits    D missions
  15    A faster    B slower    C later    D earlier
  16    A forecast    B remember    C express    D understand
  17    A unpredicted    B contributory    C controllable    D disruptive
  18    A tendency    B decision    C arrangement    D endeavor
  19    A political    B religious    C ethnic    D economic
  20    A see    B show    C prove    D tell
  答案解析
  1、A what    本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第一个空考察表语从句的引导词。
  2、B concluded    本句的句意是:这就是加利福尼亚大学和耶鲁大学在美国国家科学院报告上联合发表的研究成果。第二个空为针对从句谓语进行的词义考察。
  3、D on    本句前半句的句意是:这项研究是一个基于1932个独特个体的基因组广谱分析。考察Conduct on词组,进行。从句意为:它对成对儿的非亲缘朋友和陌生人进行比较。
  4、C compared    比较,根据上下文及后一句的same知道,比较为最佳。
  5、C samples    词义题,样本,C为最佳选项。
  6、A insignificant    词义题,1%,以及后面的not so转折,判断,A insignificant不显著,为最佳选项。
  7、C know    句意为:一些人虽然并不认识他们第四代的表亲,但他们选择的朋友却和这些亲戚颇有相似之处。
  8、D resemble    词义题,和上一个空形成转折。
  9、B also    上下文逻辑题,发现了,还发现了。Also为最佳选项。
  10、D Perhaps    结合上下文:这一现象很难解释,后面接原因,原因"可能"是……最符合文章大意。
  11、B to    介词题,意为:就像这个科研团队所发现的,这个因素不仅把我们带到详细的环境中来,更有一些深层次的影响。
  12、D drive    词义题,根据上下文,对我们产生影响,驱使我们……drive为最佳选项。
  13、B rather than    逻辑题,基因上相似的,功能上相似的,二者对立不能同时存在,rather than不是…而是最符合。
  14、C benefits    跟"功能"搭配,选个褒义词,带来好处的,最佳。
  15、A faster    词义题,根据后半句解释,这就是为什么"picked pace"加速,这里只能选faster,一些比另外一些进化得更快,符合文意。
  16、D understand    词义题,这个研究可以帮助我们理解一个事实。
  17、B contributory    本句意为:社会环境是最主要的一个因素。Contributory贡献,最佳。
  18、A tendency    结合文章主旨,选择基因相似的人做朋友是普遍现象,tendency趋势倾向最符合。
  19、C ethnic    同义替换,基因背景相似,种族的,民族的,最符合。
  20、A see    本句意为:尽管所有的研究对象都取自欧洲血统,研究者也花心思确保了所有(用于比对的)朋友和陌生人也源自该血统中的同一支系。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
  Part A
  Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
  Text 1
  King Juan Carlos of Spain once insisted kings don't abdicate, they die in their sleep. But embarrassing scandals and the popularity of the republican left in the recent Euro-elections have forced him to eat his words and stand down. So, dies the Spanish crisis suggest that monarchy is seeing its last days? Does that mean the uniting is on the wall for all European royals, with their magnificent uniforms and majestic lifestyles?
  The Spanish case previous arguments both for and against monarchy when public opinion is particularly. Polarized, as it was following the end of the France regime, monarchs can rise above "mere" politics and "embody" a spirit of national unity.
  It is this apparent transcendence of politics that explains monarchs continuing popularity as heads of states. And so, the Middle East expected, Europe is the most monarch-infested region is the world, with 10 kingdoms not counting Vatican city and Andorra. But unlike their absolutist counterparts in the Gulf and Asia, most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for a non-controversial but respect public figure.
  Even so, kings and queens undoubtedly have a downside, symbolic of national unity as they claim to be, their very history-and sometimes the way they behave today-embodies outdated and indefensible privileges and inequalities. At a time when Thomes Piketty and other ecumenists are warning of rising inequality and the increasing power of inherited wealth, it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states. The most successful monarchies strive to abandon or hide their old aristocratic ways. Prince and princess have day-jobs and ride bicycles, not horses (or helicopters). Even so, these are wealthy families who party with the international 1%, and media intrusiveness makes it increasingly difficult to maintain the right image.
  While Europe's monarchies will no doubt be smart enough to strive for some time to come, it is the British royals who have most to fear from the Spanish example.
  It is only the Queen who has preserved the monarchy reputation with her rather ordinary (if well-healed) granny style. The danger will come with Charles, who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and a pretty hierarchical view of the world. He has failed to understand that monarchies have largely survived because they provide a service-as non-controversial and non-political heads of state. Charles ought to know that as English history shows, it is kings of republicans, who are the monarchy's worst enemies.
  21、according to the first two paragraphs, king Juan Carl of span
  [A] used to enjoy high public support
  [B] was unpopular among European royals
  [C] ended his reign in embarrassment
  [D] eased his relationship with his rivals
  22、monarchs are kept as head of state in Europe mostly
  [A] owing to their undoubted and respectable status
  [B] to achieve a balance between tradition and reality
  [C] to give voters more public figures to look up to
  [D] due to their everlasting political embodiment
  23. Which of the following is shown to be odd, according to Paragraph 4?
  [A] Aristocrats' excessive reliance on inherited wealth.
  [B] The simple lifestyle of the aristocratic families.
  [C] The role of the nobility in modern democracies.
  [D] The nobility's adherence to their privileges.
  24. The British royals "have most to fear" because Charles
  [A] takes a tough line on political issues.
  [B] fails to change his lifestyle as advised.
  [C] takes republicans as his potential allies.
  [D] fails to adapt himself to his future role.
  25. Which of the following is the best title of the text?
  [A] Carlos, Glory and Disgrace Combined
  [B] Carlos, a Lesson for All European Monarchs
  [C] Charles, Slow to React to the Coming Threats
  [D] Charles, Anxious to Succeed to the Throne
  解析:
  21 D ended his reign in embarrassment
  此题属于细节题。
  根据关键词King Juan Carlos of Spain 定位到第一段第一和第二句。But embarrassing scandals…have forced him to eat his words and stand down. 此处stand down译为放弃席位。因此D ended his reign in embarrassment是原文内容的同义替换。
  22 A owing to their undoubted and respectable status
  此题属于细节题。
  根据关键词定位到第三段第一句it is this apparent …that explains …as heads of state.和第三句But unlike their absolutist…most royal families have survived because they allow voters to avoid the difficult search for ...respected public figure. 绝大多数皇室家族使得选民避免了寻找受人尊敬的公众人物的麻烦。因此A owing to their undoubted and respectable status是原文内容的同义替换。
  23 B the role of the nobility in modern democracies
  此题属于细节题。
  根据关键词定位到第四段最后一句话…it is bizarre that wealthy aristocratic families should still be the symbolic heart of modern democratic states 奇怪的是有钱的贵族家庭仍然处于现代民主国家的核心地位。因此B the role of the nobility in modern democracies是原文内容的同义替换。
  24 B fails to change his lifestyle as advised
  此题属于细节题。
  根据关键词"have most of fear"定位到第六段,Charles定位到最后一段的地二句Charles 后面who引导定语从句who has both an expensive taste of lifestyle and …world因此B fails to change his lifestyle as advised是原文内容的同义替换。
  25 C Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs
  此题属于全文主旨题。
  着眼全文,通篇都在围绕monarchs展开。第一段由Carlos引出当今君主制面临的危机。因此Carlos,a Lesson for All European Monarchs是全文内容的精确概括。
  Text 2
  Just how much does the Constitution protect your digital data? The Supreme Court will now consider whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone without a warrant if the phone is on or around a person during an arrest.
  California has asked the justices to refrain from a sweeping ruling, particularly one that upsets the old assumptions that authorities may search through the possessions of suspects at the time of their arrest. It is hard, the state argues, for judges to assess the implications of new and rapidly changing technologies.
  The court would be recklessly modest if it followed California's advice. Enough of the implications are discernable, even obvious, so that the justice can and should provide updated guidelines to police, lawyers and defendants.
  They should start by discarding California's lame argument that exploring the contents of a smartphone-- a vast storehouse of digital information is similar to say, going through a suspect's purse .The court has ruled that police don't violate the Fourth Amendment when they go through the wallet or pocketbook, of an arrestee without a warrant. But exploring one's smartphone is more like entering his or her home. A smartphone may contain an arrestee's reading history, financial history, medical history and comprehensive records of recent correspondence. The development of "cloud computing," meanwhile, has made that exploration so much the easier.
  But the justices should not swallow California's argument whole. New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution's protections. Orin Kerr, a law professor, compares the explosion and accessibility of digital information in the 21st century with the establishment of automobile use as a digital necessity of life in the 20th: The justices had to specify novel rules for the new personal domain of the passenger car then; they must sort out how the Fourth Amendment applies to digital information now.
  26. The Supreme Court, will work out whether, during an arrest, it is legitimate to
  [A] search for suspects' mobile phones without a warrant.
  [B] check suspects' phone contents without being authorized.
  [C] prevent suspects from deleting their phone contents.
  [D] prohibit suspects from using their mobile phones.
  27. The author's attitude toward California's argument is one of
  [A] tolerance.
  [B] indifference.
  [C] disapproval.
  [D] cautiousness.
  28. The author believes that exploring one's phone content is comparable to
  [A] getting into one's residence.
  [B] handing one's historical records.
  [C] scanning one's correspondences.
  [D] going through one's wallet.
  29. In Paragraph 5 and 6, the author shows his concern that
  [A] principles are hard to be clearly expressed.
  [B] the court is giving police less room for action.
  [C] phones are used to store sensitive information.
  [D] citizens' privacy is not effective protected.
  30.Orin Kerr's comparison is quoted to indicate that
  (A)the Constitution should be implemented flexibly.
  (B)New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution.
  (C)California's argument violates principles of the Constitution.
  (D)Principles of the Constitution should never be altered.
  T2
  26 答案B check suspects' phone contents without being authorized
  解析:细节题。根据自然段定位原则,定位到首段。根据题干关键词supreme court,whether精确定位到第一段最后一句whether police can search the contents of a mobile phone….,与选项进行对应,即为B在不授权的情况下检查嫌疑人的电话信息。注意A选项应是search contents。
  27 答案 C disapproval
  解析:态度题。根据题干California's argument定位到第二段最后一句及第三段首句,这些句子中提到hard… recklessly modest…等负向词,表达的是负面态度。看选项属于负面的就是disapproval。A 容忍,B冷漠是典型错误,D粗心。
  28 答案A getting into one's residence
  解析:细节题。题干问:作者认为搜索电话薄就相当于什么?根据段落界定原则定位到第四段转折处,提到But exploring one's smart phone is more like entering his or her home.与选项对应,A中的residence对应home,是原文的同意替换。注意D选项不是作者的观点,不能将文中人物观点当作作者观点。
  29 答案D citizens' privacy is not effective protected
  解析:细节题。根据题干定位到5段和6段,题干问作者最关注的是什么,即是相应段落的段落中心。因此,该题表面是细节题,实质为段落核心。5段首句为中心句提到,应采取措施保护数据隐私;6段又继续陈述原则的不恰当之处。根据这些内容,对应答案D 市民隐私未能得到有效保护。
  30 答案 B New technology requires reinterpretation of the Constitution
  解析:例证题。题干问的是引用Orin Kerr的目的是什么,即Orin Kerr是论据,其目的是论点。论点往往在论据的前面,所以要找例子前面的一句话,即New, disruptive technology sometimes demands novel applications of the Constitution's protections.与选项对应,就是B new technology是原词复现,require等同于demands,reinterpretation of the Constitution同义替换applications of the Constitution's protections。
  Text 3
  The journal Science is adding an extra round of statistical checks to its peer-review process, editor-in-chief Marcia McNutt announced today. The policy follows similar efforts from other journals, after widespread concern that basic mistakes in data analysis are contributing to the irreproducibility of many published research findings.
  "Readers must have confidence in the conclusions published in our journal," writes McNutt in an editorial. Working with the American Statistical Association, the journal has appointed seven experts to a statistics board of reviewing editors (SBoRE). Manu will be flagged up for additional scrutiny by the journal's internal editors, or by its existing Board of Reviewing Editors or by outside peer reviewers. The SBoRE panel will then find external statisticians to review these manuscripts.
  Asked whether any particular papers had impelled the change, McNutt said: "The creation of the 'statistics board'was motivated by concerns broadly with the application of statistics and data analysis in scientific research and is part of Science's overall drive to increase reproducibility in the research we publish."
  Giovanni Parmigiani, a biostatistician at the Harvard School of Public Health, a member of the SBoRE group, says he expects the board to "play primarily an advisory role." He agreed to join because he "found the foresight behind the establishment of the SBoRE to be novel, unique and likely to have a lasting impact. This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science."
  31. It can be learned from Paragraph I that
  [A] Science intends to simplify its peer-review process.
  [B]journals are strengthening their statistical checks.
  [C]few journals are blamed for mistakes in data analysis.
  [D]lack of data analysis is common in research projects.
  32. The phrase 'flagged up" (Para.2)is the closest in meaning to
  [A]found.
  [B]revised.
  [C]marked
  [D]stored
  33. Giovanni Parmigiani believes that the establishment of the SBoRE may
  [A]pose a threat to all its peers
  [B]meet with strong opposition
  [C]increase Science's circulation.
  [D]set an example for other journals
  34. David Vaux holds that what Science is doing now
  A. adds to researchers' workload.
  B. diminishes the role of reviewers.
  C. has room for further improvement.
  D. is to fail in the foreseeable future.
  35. Which of the following is the best title of the text?
  A. Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers
  B. Professional Statisticians Deserve More Respect
  C. Data Analysis Finds Its Way onto Editors' Desks
  D. Statisticians Are Coming Back with Science
  Text 3
  31. 答案 B journals are strengthening their statistical checks 段落推断题 考查的是段落中心句,定位在首段首句 The journal Science is adding an extra source at Peer-review process, editor-in- chief  Marcia McNott announced today.  《科学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源。与选项B同意替换。
  32. 答案 C marked 词义句意题 根据所猜短语flagged up 所在句子的句意,手稿将被flagged up以供杂志编辑、现有的编辑评审委员会或外部同行审查。比较四个选项,只有C marked 被标记,符合题意。
  33. 答案 D set an example for other journals 观点细节题 定位在四段末句 This impact will not only be through the publications in Science itself, but hopefully through a larger group of publishing places that may want to model their approach after Science. 这不仅对于《科学》 杂志本身的出版有影响,还有希望影响其它的出版社,这些出版社想继《科学》 杂志之后树立自己的典型形象。选项D是这句话的概括总结。
  34. 答案 D has room for further improvement 观点细节题 定位在末段末句,Vaux says that Science's idea to pass some papers to statisticians "has some merit, but a weakness is that ...."Vaux 认为《科学》 杂志的想法有一些好处,但是有个缺点是....这就说明这个想法是有进一步改进的空间的。
  35. 答案 A Science Joins Push to Screen Statistics in Papers  主旨大意题 本文首段首句就是全文主题句,《科学》 杂志将要对同行评审过程增加额外的资源,而且全文其它各个段落都在围绕对这一想法不同专家的不同态度在论述,所以选项A是对全文中心的完整表达。
  Text 4
  Two years ago, Rupert Murdoch's daughter, Elisabeth, spoke of the "unsettling dearth of integrity across so many of our institutions". Integrity had collapsed, she argued, because of a collective acceptance that the only "sorting mechanism" in society should be profit and the market. But "it's us, human beings, we the people who create the society we want, not profit".
  Driving her point home, she continued: "It's increasingly apparent that the absence of purpose, of a moral language within government, media or business could become one of the most dangerous goals for capitalism and freedom." This same absence of moral purpose was wounding companies such as News International, she thought, making it more likely that it would lose its way as it had with widespread illegal telephone hacking.
  As the hacking trial concludes-finding guilty one ex-editor of the News of the World, Andy Coulson, for conspiring to hack phones, and finding his predecessor, Rebekah Brooks, innocent of the same charge-the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands. Journalists are known to have hacked the phones of up to 5,500 people. This is hacking on an industrial scale, as was acknowledged by Glenn Mulcaire, the man hired by the News of the World in 2001 to be the point person for phone hacking. Others await trial. This saga still unfolds.
  In many respects, the dearth of moral purpose frames not only the fact of such widespread phone hacking but the terms on which the trial took place. One of the astonishing revelations was how little Rebekah Brooks knew of what went on in her newsroom, how little she thought to ask and the fact that she never inquired how the stories arrived. The core of her successful defense was that she knew nothing.
  In today's world, it has become normal that well-paid executives should not be accountable for what happens in the organizations that they run. Perhaps we should not be so surprised. For a generation, the collective doctrine has been that the sorting mechanism of society should be profit. The words that have mattered are efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value, business-friendly, wealth generation, sales, impact and, in newspapers, circulation. Words degraded to the margin have been justice, fairness, tolerance, proportionality and accountability.
  The purpose of editing the News of the World was not to promote reader understanding, to be fair in what was written or to betray any common humanity. It was to ruin lives in the quest for circulation and impact. Ms Brooks may or may not have had suspicions about how her journalists got their stories, but she asked no questions, gave no instructions-nor received traceable, recorded answers.
  36. According to the first two paragraphs, Elisabeth was upset by
  (A) the consequences of the current sorting mechanism.
  (B) companies' financial loss due to immoral practices
  (C) governmental ineffectiveness on moral issues.
  (D) the wide misuse of integrity among institutions.
  37. It can be inferred from Paragraph 3 that
  (A) Glenn Mulcaire may deny phone hacking as a crime.
  (B) more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking.
  (C) Andy Coulson should be held innocent of the charge.
  (D) phone hacking will be accepted on certain occasions.
  38. The author believes that Rebekah Brooks's defense
  (A) revealed a cunning personality.
  (B) centered on trivial issues.
  (C) was hardly convincing.
  (D) was part of a conspiracy.
  39. The author holds that the current collective doctrine shows
  (A) generally distorted values.
  (B) unfair wealth distribution.
  (C) a marginalized lifestyle.
  (D) a rigid moral code.
  40 Which of the following is suggested in the last paragraph?
  (A) The quality of writings is of primary importance.
  (B) Common humanity is central to news reporting.
  (C) Moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper.
  (D) Journalists need stricter industrial regulations.
  36. 答案A. The consequences of the current sorting mechanism. 因果细节题  题目问到Elisbeth 因什么而感到沮丧。定位在第一段第二句 Intergrity had collapsed, ..., because of a collective acceptance that the only "sorting mechanism" in society should be profit and the market, 由于社会中唯一的分类机制是利润和市场这一共同的观念,导致了正直这种道德品质的沦丧。
  37. 答案 B more journalists may be found guilty of phone hacking  段落推断题  定位到第三段第一句 As the hacking trial concludes.... the wider issue of dearth of integrity still stands 正如窃听案总结的那样,仍然存在更广泛的dearth of integrity 的事件,与选项B 对应。
  38. 答案 C was hardly convincing  观点细节题 根据第四段第二句中astonishing,how little...,how little... She never ... 以及第三句中She knew nothing 的语气判断作者的态度是认为RB的辩护是没有说服力的。
  39. 答案 A generally distorted values  观点细节题 题干定位在第五段第三句,答案定位在随后的第四、第五句。 The current collective doctrine 认为重要的是 efficiency, flexibility, shareholder value...., 而认为justice, fairness....不重要,故扭曲了价值观。
  40. 答案是C     moral awareness matters in editing a newspaper. 段落推断题 定位在最后一段前两句。世界新闻杂志的目的不是提升读者的理解能力。。。。而是为了发行量和影响力而毁了人们的生活。从ruined the lives 的表达能看出作者希望杂志所做的是提高其道德意识,与C选项对应。
  Part B
  Directions:
  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
  How does your reading proceed? Clearly, you try to comprehend, in the sense of identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them, drawing on your implicit knowledge of English grammar. (41)________________. You begin to infer a context for the text, for instance, by making decisions about what kind of speech event is evolved. Who is making the utterance, to whom, when and where?
  The ways of reading indicated here are without doubt kinds of comprehension but they show comprehension to consist not just of passive assimilation but of active engagement in inference and problem-solving. You infer information you feel the writer has invited you to grasp by presenting you with specific evidence and clues. (42) ________________
  Conceived in this way, comprehension will not follow exactly the same track for each reader. What is in question is not the retrieval of an absolute, fixed or "true" meaning that can be read off and checked for accuracy, or some timeless relationship of the text to the world. (43) _____________
  Such background material inevitably reflects who we are. (44) _____________. This does not, however, make interpretation merely relative or even pointless. Precisely because readers from different historical periods, places and social experiences produce different but overlapping readings of the same words on the page---including for texts that engage with fundamental human concerns--- debates about texts can play an important role in social discussion of belief and values.
  How we read a given text also depends to some extent on our particular interest in reading it. (45) _____________. Such dimensions of reading suggest---as others introduced later in the book will also do--that we bring an implicit (often unacknowledged) agenda to any act of reading. It does not then necessarily follow that one kind of reading is fuller, more advanced or more worthwhile than another. Ideally, different minds of reading inform each other, and act as useful reference points for and counterbalances to one another. Together, they make up the reading component of your overall literacy, or relationship to your surrounding textual environment.
  [A] Are we studying that text and trying to respond in a way that fulfills the requirement of a given course? Reading it simply for pleasure? Skimming it for information? Ways of reading on a train or in bed are likely to differ considerably from reading in a seminar room.
  [B] Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender ethnicity, age and social class will encourage us towards certain interpretations but at the same time obscure or even close off others.
  [C] If you are unfamiliar with words or idioms, you guess at their meaning, using clues presented in the context. On the assumption that they will become relevant later, you make a mental note of discourse entities as well as possible links between them.
  [D]In effect, you try to reconstruct the likely meanings or effects that any given sentence, image or reference might have had: These might be the ones the author intended.
  [E] You make further inferences, for instance, about how the text may be significant to you, or about its validity-inferences that form the basis of a personal response for which the author will inevitably be far less responsible.
  [F] In plays, novels and narrative poems, characters speak as constructs created by the author, not necessarily as mouthpieces for the author's own thoughts.
  [G]Rather, we ascribe meanings to texts on the basis of interaction between what we might call textual and contextual material: between kinds of organizations or patterning we perceive in a text's formal structures (so especially its language structures) and various kinds of background, social knowledge, belief and attitude that we bring to the text.
  41 【C】
  解析:41段中空,所以要看上句。空前与空后句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D中存在,此其一也;D中出现了reconstruct(重组)逻辑上是再次发生,与位于句首的逻辑发生了叙述上的矛盾。故排除D选择C。另外,C中的words or idioms和meanings 在41空前句重现,因为前句中有identifying meanings for individual words and working out relationships between them。
  42 【E】
  解析:42 段尾空,所以看上一句话。空前一句中的主语是you,因此正确选项在C、D、E中存在,此其一也;其二,该句中主句谓语动词是infer, 与E中的宾语inferences构成逻辑对应关系。故排除C和D选择E。另外,42空前两句提到了阅读时我们会active engagement in inference and problem-solving, 并针对作者文中的specific evidence and clues 进行信息的推测。E选项中further 一词表明延续此话题,用for instance 具体举例说明我们对文章信息作怎么样的推测。
  43【G】
  解析:43段尾空,应重点看本段上一句。同时下段开头出现了代词such background,而G中最后一句中的background与之形成逻辑对应关系。故选择G。另外,G中Rather表示转折,与43空前句开头的not 构成"not… rather…"的"不是……而是……"结构
  44【B】
  解析:44段中空,看上下句。此段空前句中有关键词background,空后句中有关键词interpretation; background逻辑上对应G中最后一句中的background,而interpretation 逻辑对应B中最后一句中的interpretations. 故选择B。另外,B中Factors such as the place and period in which we are reading, our gender, ethnicity, age and social class 是44空前who we are的具体阐述。
  45【A】
  解析:45段中空,看上下句。最后一段首句主语是we, 所有选项中只有A和G的主语是we;但是G中首词是转折词Rather,与首句逻辑矛盾,故排除G选择A。另外,A中具体描述了许多不同的阅读目的和方式,此为对45空前句How we read a given text 和our particular interest in reading it 的具体阐述。A中的信息是45空后句such dimensions of reading 的指代对象。
  Part C Translation
  Directions:
  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
  Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.
  49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay.
  To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.
  文章来源于An Outline of American History,《美国历史纲要》,是一本历史学方面的专著。
  46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.
  【句子结构】本句的主干为:this movement built a nation and shaped the character and destiny。driven by powerful motivations为过去分词做状语,分隔了主谓。out of a wilderness和by its nature为介词短语做状语,分别修饰built和shaped。
  【参考译文】受到多种强大的动机驱动,这次移民在一片荒野上建起了一个国家,由于其本质,它也塑造了一个未知大陆的性格和命运。
  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces--the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits.
  【句子结构】本句主干为The United States is the product。破折号之后the immigration and the impact为two principal forces。of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics为the immigration的定语,of a new country为the impact的定语,之后which引导定语从句,修饰a new country。
  【参考译文】美国产生于两个主要力量:思想习俗、民族特色各异的欧洲移民,以及改造这些特征的新国家所产生的影响。
  48 But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes.
  【句子结构】本句的主干为But the force, the interplay and the sheer difficulty caused changes。本句主语较长,为并列的三个名词the force, the interplay and the sheer difficulty,之后又分别有较长的定语修饰:介词短语of geographic conditions为the force的定语,之后peculiar to America为形容词短语修饰geographic conditions;介词短语of the varied national groups和upon one another同时修饰the interplay;of maintaining old-world ways 和in a raw, new continent同时修饰the sheer difficulty。
  【参考译文】但是,美国拥有独特的地理条件,不同民族之间产生了相互的作用,因此,在一片原始新大陆上,维护旧大陆方式产生了纯粹的困难,这一切引发了重大的变化。
  49 The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America.
  【句子结构】本句的主干为The first shiploads of immigrants crossed the Atlantic。bound for the territory为immigrants的定语,之后which引导定语从句修饰the territory。 more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America为状语。
  【参考译文】在15-16世纪北美探索的一百多年之后,运往如今的美国这片新领土的第一船移民横渡了大西洋。
  50 The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia.
  【句子结构】本句主干为The virgin forest was a real treasure-house。主语之后with its richness and variety of trees为其定语,表语a real treasure-house后是which引导的定语从句对其进行修饰。
  【参考译文】拥有丰富多样树种的原始森林是一个真正的宝库,它从缅因州一直延伸到乔治亚州。

  Section III    Writing
  Part A
  Directions:
  You are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.
  You should state reasons for your recommendation.
  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming " instead. Do not write the address .(10 points)
  Dear friends,
  I am writing to tell you about a fantastic book I have just read, as we always share the same taste of books.
  The book is called Journey to the West, which tells us a story that four monks conquered multiple handicaps to achieve their final destination. Besides the touching and thrilling plot, the book also features humorous languages, thanks to the talented author.
  So I recommend it to all of you as one of the favorite books that I have ever read. I am sure you will love it as much as I do. I am looking forward to discussing more with you after you read it.
  Yours sincerely,
  o                                                    Li Ming
  今年英语一的小作文不出预料,再一次考查到了推荐信。在英语一的考试当中,推荐信已经考查过1年。例如我们英语一在2011年就考查过向你的朋友推荐一部电影。具体题目要求如下Directions:
  Write a letter to a friend of yours to
  1) recommend one of your favorite movies and
  2) give reasons for your recommendation.
  因此,考生不用惊慌只要把2011年的小作文稍作修改即可成文。这就启发我们2016届的同学们要高度重视历年真题,因为考过的话题或是书信类型会反复考查。今年考题的Direction要求向读书俱乐部的成员推荐一本书。根据题目的要求,我们可以判断本文为公务信函,语域为正式语域,即不能出现缩写、省略问句和和口语表达。
  下面我们来详细解读下今年的小作文,首先看一下题目要求:
  Directions:
  you are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.
  You should state reasons for your recommendation.
  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET. Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use "Li Ming " instead. Do not write the address .(10 point)
  称呼: Dear friends注意称呼中,后面的逗号不可丢,也不能写成冒号。
  正文
  第一段:写作内容需涵盖两点:写信目的,表明推荐;用到了这样的表达I am writing to tell you about a fantastic book I have just read, as we always share the same taste of books.
  第二段: 写作内容为推荐原因。首先,告知大家推荐的书名是什么;再次,具体阐明推荐的具体原因。用到了这样的表达:The book is called Journey to the West, which tells us a story that four monks conquered multiple handicaps to achieve their final destination. Besides the touching and thrilling plot, the book also features humorous languages, thanks to the talented author.
  第三段:再次强调写信目的。
  落款: Yours sincerely,  特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;签名: Li Ming特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。
  Part B
  Part B
  52.    Directions:
  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should
  1. describe the pictures briefly,
  2. interpret its intended meaning, and
  3. give your comments.
  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

  A group of friends, boys or girls, are having a dinner party while each one of them is checking messages in their mobile phones without saying a word to one another, leaving the dishes untouched. We are informed that this is a gathering in the era of mobile phone.
  The above picture unveils a common social phenomenon and the symbolic meaning of the photo is the effect of the mobile phone on people's way of life. Undoubtedly, the phone provides us with considerable convenience, making many things possible which are beyond our dreams. As a communication tool, the phone makes us closer than ever before by providing immediate communication. Meanwhile, there are negative effects on our personal life. As is shown in the picture, people are imprisoned in their own world! They choose contacting online rather than communicating face to face.
  Accordingly, enjoying the convenience provided by the phones, we should bear in mind that human beings are social beings who need real interpersonal interactions! Joint efforts are needed to ensure people to have face-to-face communication! I believe a harmonious relationship between friends is awaiting us if we set aside our mobile phones and enjoy the untouched meal!
  2015年的大作文从总体上来看不难,因为它考查到了现在的一个社会热点。这个热点甚至比2014年当时的热点还要热!就内容和话题而言,在我们的预料之中,属于综合性话题,既考察了当今信息社会发展过程中网络对我们生活的影响,正如任何事物有两个方面一样,积极方面和消极方面,必须做到两者的统一,对于手机的影响这个话题大家应该是有话可说的。同时,本题也考查了人际关系方面的内容,同样是两方面内容所引申出来的,这是借用人际关系这个事件来说明和阐述手机的两方面的影响和作用,也就是手机的出现和发展给我们之间的联系提供了方便,使我们的世界变成了地球村,另外比如信息共享,成果共享等都非常方便;除此之外,也有消极的一方面,也就是手机的出现同时淡漠了人际关系,忽视了人与人之间的面对面的交往和联系,同时人们之间面对面说话的交流机会少了,话题也少了。最后说出你的对策。
  更重要的是:从十年的考研真题来讲,2009年的大作文考查到了网络的问题,当年的图画是很多人在一个类似大的蜘蛛网的区域里上网,图片下面有一行字:网络的"近"与"远"!当年的描述图画部分比较难表达,而今年图画描述部分相比起来就容易得多。下面我们就从写作的标准三段式来讲讲这三段我们应该怎么写。
  第一段图画描述段的写作内容主要是表述图画,四个人都在盯着手机,桌子上的饭菜没动,还可以更加注意写细节,比如他们认真的神情和桌子上的饭菜未动之类!第二段是图画涵义阐释段。本段可分两个方面来具体写。一方面具体写明手机给我们带来的好处;另一方面,我们要指出手机的弊端,给我们生活带来了很多负面影响。第三段评论段的写作内容为给出自己的评论和建议。可以指出年轻人应该重视面对面的交流!最后一句可以展望一下未来,说如果我们放下手机拿起筷子享受美食,和谐的关系就会出现了!
  如果同学们指出这个是一个社会问题,我们要加以改正,个人认为这也是可以接受的!
发布与修改日期:2015-08-22
责任编辑:凯程115

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